How to Calculate the Net Realizable Value of Your Receivables through Procurement

how to calculate net realizable value

He always tries to keep the store stocked with the most up-to-date hunting and fishing equipment that there is out there. That idea may be a good thing, but in the end, it also means that he carries quite a bit of inventory that must be valued at the end of an accounting period. Company X is expecting that if they sell that machine today, they will get $5000 for that. But they have to go through a middle man which will charge $100 as it cost. Also, the company has to bear all the paperwork and transportation cost which is another $200.

To calculate the net realizable value, you must subtract any estimated losses from your total accounts receivable. This includes deductions for things like late payments and customer disputes, as well as write-offs for customers who are unlikely to pay their outstanding balances. The very essence of cost accounting is to determine the actual costs of products in order to arrive at its sales price.

What Is the Difference Between an Inventory Write-Off & Inventory Reserve?

Net realizable value, as discussed above can be calculated by deducting the selling cost from the expected market price of the asset and plays a key role in inventory valuation. Every business has to keep a close on its inventory and periodically access its value. The reason for that is there are several negative impacts like damage of inventory, obsolescence, spoilage etc. which can affect the inventory value in a negative way. So it is better for a business to write off those assets once for all rather than carrying those assets which can increase the losses in the future. The final step in NRV analysis is to compare the NRV against the asset’s carrying value on the company’s books. Remember, the carrying value is initially recorded as the asset’s original cost and may have been subsequently adjusted, such as with depreciation or allowances for obsolescence or doubtful accounts.

As we might have no sales for some of our inventory items, we include another check and return “no sales” where the sold quantity is zero. For items we sold, where the Average Price is less than the Average Cost, we identify an NRV issue. This analysis is part of almost any audit, as inventory and accounts receivable overstatement is a more significant risk. If the auditors identify significant NRV issues, the company will either have to adjust their records or accept a qualified audit report. Calculating the NRV of inventory and accounts receivable regularly prevents overstatement of assets in the Balance Sheet and helps us conform with the conservatism principle. In inventory, the NRV is used to allocate for the joint costs of the products prior to the split off in order to come up with the sales price of the individual products.

Net Realizable Value (NRV) Formula

Once reduced, the Inventory account becomes the new basis for valuation and reporting purposes going forward. GAAP does not permit a write-up of write-downs reported in a prior year, even if the value of the inventory has recovered. Adjustments to the Allowance account are reported on the income statement as bad debts expense. In the context of inventory, NRV represents the expected selling price in a regular business transaction, less the estimated costs of delivery, completion, and disposal.

how to calculate net realizable value

On a company’s balance sheet, inventory is typically listed “at cost,” meaning the value reported is whatever it cost the company to acquire the inventory. If the net realizable value of an item is lower than its cost, however, then the item’s balance-sheet value must be “written down” to NRV. Now that you know what NRV is and how to calculate it, let’s talk about why it’s so important. Any business that carries any kind of inventory has to value that inventory. The manner in which inventory is valued is specified by generally accepted accounting principles, which are also known as GAAP. GAAP are the guidelines for financial reporting and recording, and they’re established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board.

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